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Semiconductor industry observation
Power semiconductor devices (Power Semiconductor Device) also known as power electronic devices (Power Electronic Device), is mainly used for power equipment power conversion and control circuit, power (power) is the core device, the bridge between the weak control and strong operation.
Typical power processing functions include frequency conversion, variable voltage, variable current, power amplification and power management. Besides guaranteeing the normal operation of the device, power devices also play an effective energy-saving role.
At present, the application scope of power semiconductors has expanded from traditional industrial control and 4C industry (computers, communications, consumer electronics and automobiles) to new fields such as new energy, rail transit, smart grid and so on.
(1) the small power range (from W to kW) is used for switching power supply of various appliances, servers and other devices, such as laptop, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner, and so on, so as to enhance the utilization efficiency of electric energy.
(2) in the power range (10kW to MW), used for electrical transmission, new energy power generation, such as new energy vehicles (EV/HEV), improve the single charge mileage; for solar PV (photovoltaic) inverter, improve the conversion efficiency of the power supply; for heavy industrial equipment, high frequency power converter prepared. Bring the advantage of high power and high frequency;
(3) high power range (up to several GW), mostly for HVDC (HVDC) transmission system, etc.
China occupies 40% market share of global power device
Overall, in recent years due to industrial control, home appliances, charging equipment and other terminal applications continue to pursue higher energy efficiency, fast update, substantial growth steadily expanding the range of products downstream output power devices and power devices, power devices market in the global range especially China region to maintain steady growth.
In the past five years, the composite growth rate of power semiconductor devices in China has reached 27.8%, which is a relatively fast product in the market for semiconductor products.
As the market gets warmer, /IGBT and SiC/GaN wide band gap devices are most growing. IC Insights pointed out that in 2015, the global power semiconductor market will rise to 12 billion 400 million US dollars in 2016. Among all kinds of power components, the most growing products are high voltage MOSFET (over 200V) and IGBT module. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the two products in 2015~2020 years is 4.7% and 4%, respectively.
IHS report pointed out that with more and more suppliers to launch products, in 2015 the average sales price of silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductor has been a marked decline, is expected to stimulate the market to accelerate the adoption; at the same time, gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor power has begun to enter the market, forecast global SiC and GaN semiconductor power output, from $210 million in 2015, the rapid growth to $about 1000000000 in 2020, and will reach $3 billion 700 million in 2025.
Continental power semiconductors have the best opportunity for development
In May 2015, the State Council issued the "2025" key areas of technology roadmap Chinese manufacturing, is expected to 2030, Chinese IC market size of the global proportion will reach 43.35% to 45.64%, China will become the manufacturing industry chain of IC design, the world's largest base, reached the world advanced level in the field of many advantages. It refers to the breakthrough and development of the key areas of power equipment, including the development of the key components of high-power power electronic devices.
"2025" is the core of Chinese making effective use of automation and intelligence, new energy, energy efficiency and resource, put the advanced rail transportation equipment, power equipment, energy-saving and new energy vehicles, marine engineering equipment, aerospace equipment as a breakthrough development in key areas.
As power semiconductors play a key role in the entire power supply chain such as power generation, transmission and distribution, and power utilization, China made 2025 will bring strong driving force for the power control market, and the expected growth rate will continue to 2025.
The current China and the global environmental problems facing severe challenges, many countries have promulgated energy-saving emission reduction policies, as all kinds of industrial facilities, consumer electronics, home appliances and other equipment of power control for the core device conversion, power semiconductor technology industry will face new challenges and opportunities for development.
As the semiconductor industry and energy-saving emission reduction policies and the implementation of the agreement, the power semiconductor industry to benefit from the key support of the state, is expected in 13th Five-Year during the period from "material - Wafer - package - devices - Application of the whole industrial chain technological breakthrough, especially in the new energy MOS devices and IGBT module domain application, application SiC/GaN and other new materials and devices.
Modularized and high power to lead the market trend
Power semiconductor devices mainly include power discrete devices, power modules and power integrated circuits (power IC). Power discrete devices mainly include power diodes; power transistors; thyristor devices. Among them, the common power transistors include power MOS devices represented by VDMOS, insulated gate bipolar transistor IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) and power bipolar transistors (Power BJT:Power Bipolar Junction Transistors). Power transistors and thyristors can be called power switching devices (Power Switches).
(1) power discrete devices, power modules and power IC
Power discrete devices, from the initial diode to the high end IGBT and MOS devices, are suitable for different fields according to the pressure and working frequency. MOS devices occupy the largest share of the single class products of the whole power semiconductor market, about 25%.
IGBT is currently the most popular and potential power semiconductor device. In 2015, the IGBT discrete device accounted for about 10% of the market share, and the related module products accounted for about 30%. The thyristor is the highest withstand voltage capacity (12kV) and the maximum current capacity (10kA) of the power device.
A power module is a power semiconductor product that assembles multiple power device chips into a metal substrate for modular encapsulation in an insulating way. Compared with discrete devices, the power module has higher voltage specifications and more reliable work. At present, the power module products account for about 30% of the whole power semiconductor market, and the market proportion is increasing year by year. The IGBT module is the most popular power modular product at present.
Power IC is also the product of power IC (Power IC). It is a combination of power electronic device technology and microelectronics technology. It will integrate power devices and their driving circuits, protection circuits, interface circuits and other peripheral circuits on one or more chips. Power IC products account for about 25% of the power semiconductor market.
According to the integration and performance characteristics, the power integrated circuit can be divided into:
(a) high voltage integrated circuit (High Voltage IC - HVIC)
(b) intelligent power integrated circuit (Smart Power IC - SPIC)
(c) intelligent power module (Intelligent Power Module - IPM)
The trend of modularization and integration, and the growth of the market driven by multi industry
The manufacturing technology of modern power semiconductor devices is similar to VLSI, which is based on microfabrication and MOS technology. Therefore, the power semiconductor is modularized and integrated, which promotes the rapid development of power modules and power IC.
On the one hand, with the continuous upgrading of technology and high voltage and high power demand, power devices need higher performance, faster speed, smaller volume and multi chip connection encapsulation, so that modularization is inevitable.
On the other hand, with the continuous expansion and deepening of application area, driving power IC achieves higher efficiency, better control function and simpler peripheral layout design. Therefore, highly integrated has become a very important development direction.
Compared with discrete devices, modularized devices can effectively improve the value of power devices. The modularization of power devices makes the devices smaller and more powerful, and the value of the corresponding products will be higher. Under the market demand, it is expected that by 2020, with the development and upgrading of power semiconductor applications, especially in the field of new energy vehicles, the output value of power modules will double.
The packaging process of power discrete devices and power modules has the same evolution trend, and they are all progressing towards miniaturization, high power application and high energy efficiency.
The power module is almost used in all high power industrial products. The different requirements of various applications make each part of the power module face an improved innovation. From the perspective of packaging technology, the power module with substrate is a standard design (about 70% to 80%). DBC (direct copper coating process) is the most widely used packaging technology. The module encapsulated by this technology is usually complex and expensive. The future power semiconductor packaging technology will develop to a more excellent Fan-out package.
The big trend of intelligent energy saving, power management IC/ power electronic converter demand upgrade
Power management chip (Power Management Integrated Circuits) is also called power management IC, is responsible for the power conversion, distribution, detection and other functions of the power management chip in the electronic equipment system, mainly used in computer, communication, consumer electronics and industrial control etc..
A case of mobile phone, intelligent mobile phone is composed of many different functional modules, each module for power supply voltage varies from lithium battery direct power supply can not meet the requirements of each module, thus requires an efficient power management chip, the voltage of lithium battery provides the conversion and regulation in accordance with the need to use different methods to achieve the desired the voltage value, to meet the needs of each module.
For example, SDRAM, Flash Memory and other digital circuits need lower power supply due to the limitation of manufacturing process, while analog circuits, RF circuits and display parts need a higher supply voltage. Besides, power management IC also needs to dynamically adjust the supply voltage value of each module according to the working state information of the system, so as to achieve optimal control and reduce power consumption, so as to improve the efficiency of the system, reduce the volume of products and reduce the cost. Therefore, power management IC has become one of the most basic and most important parts of the design of electronic product systems.
According to market research agency iSuppli, the global power management IC market will reach $38 billion 700 million in 2016. With the continuous innovation of applications, the market of power management IC also presents diverse needs, differentiated applications, and more high-performance power management IC market demand is also constantly expanding, and better serve for system innovation and performance improvement.
By 2016, the combined growth rate of mobile power management chips (CAGR) was 13.1% for 11.7% mobile infrastructure and 12.3% for digital set-top boxes. It is expected that all kinds of consumer electronic products will continue to promote the high growth rate of the power management semiconductor market in the next five years. Although the market share of automobile electronics is small, it is the fastest growing field. Its market share will increase rapidly in the next few years. Besides, under the trend of 5G, the field of network communication will also maintain rapid development.
In 2014-2020 years, the average annual growth rate of China's power management chips is nearly 8.4%, and the market size will reach about 120 billion yuan by 2020.
The power electronic converter is a power electronic circuit and device for transforming the electric form. It mainly includes 4 kinds: DC/AC converter, AC / AC (AC/AC) converter, AC to DC (AC/DC) rectifier and direct to DC (DC/DC) converter. The form of power electronic converters is varied. Power semiconductor devices are the foundation of power electronics technology and application devices. They play an important role in the reliability, cost and performance of devices.
According to market research firm Yole D veloppement forecasts to 2020, power electronic converter CAGR market is about 6%, of which the industrial motor drive and UPS power supply area of the largest share of new energy vehicles, the areas with the highest growth rate
At present our country for motor power in China accounted for about 60% of the total generating capacity, according to the relevant data is roughly estimated that if the motor drive using power semiconductor inverter, energy saving of about 30%, the total generating capacity can save 15% to 20%. The power electronic converter is the core component of energy conversion, energy efficiency improvement cannot do without the power device technology progress, and with the expansion of application fields, the inverter size miniaturization, more compact structure, put forward higher requirements for materials and packaging process of power devices.
The global power semiconductor market of domestic and foreign manufacturers raging like a storm, feudal lords vying for the throne
The global power semiconductor market has surged over the years.
First, build the NXP standard department to complete the delivery and fill in the domestic automobile and industry IC blank.
Following the 2015 in the amount of $1 billion 800 million acquisition of RF Power NXP (high power amplifier tube) department, recently built wide assets led Chinese semiconductor industry the biggest overseas acquisition also smooth delivery, wide construction assets to $2 billion 750 million acquisition of NXP (NXP) standard parts business department, the main business for discrete devices the logic chip and PowerMOS chip products etc.. The successful completion of the acquisition indicates that the capital is expected to become the largest and most profitable IDM (vertical integration) enterprise in China's semiconductor industry.
NXP standard products business with leading global coverage, production capacity and profitability. After the completion of this transaction, NXP standard products business sector will become an independent company called Nexperia. NXP standard products business, including discrete devices, logic devices and PowerMOS and other products, in addition to the design department, the transaction also includes in the UK and Germany NXP two wafer manufacturing facility and is located in Malaysia, Philippines, Chinese three packaging and testing plant in Holland and NXP industrial technology equipment center, and all standard products business related patents and technical reserves.
Second, Infineon's acquisition of Wolfspeed was forced to stop, and the government strengthened control of the power semiconductor field.
Earlier, the US Foreign Investment Commission (CFIUS) terminated the sale of Wolfspeed from its main silicon carbide business to European Infineon on the grounds of national security issues, showing that the new US government attached great importance to the silicon carbide related industries. Cree
European power device Infineon wants to buy Wolfspeed for $850 million, becoming the leader of the silicon carbide power device market. The Japanese government has incorporated silicon carbide into the "prime minister strategy" and believes that 50% of the future energy saving will be achieved through it. Our country through the 863 plan, national 02 major projects to promote the development of silicon carbide industry and the silicon carbide substrate of key products included in the 13th Five-Year "strategic emerging industries directory".
As the main development direction of the next generation of power devices, silicon carbide will bring important technological innovation to power electronics, and will promote the development of power electronics in the next 20-30 years. Unlike silicon devices, both at home and abroad in the field of silicon carbide manufacturers started the smaller the gap, with the Chinese government on silicon carbide industry attention and domestic enterprises R & D capability, China also gradually formed from the substrate, the extension to the device of vertical industrial chain, on the one hand, you can gradually get rid of dependence on foreign substrates, another extension. Also for device manufacturers to provide upstream greater bargaining power, to promote the domestic development of silicon carbide industry, domestic manufacturers even expected to achieve power field "by overtaking sic".
The advantages of foreign manufacturers are obvious, and the rapid development of domestic manufacturers tries to import substitution
At present, the high end product manufacturers in the global semiconductor power discrete devices are mainly concentrated in Europe, America, Japan and Taiwan. Most of the manufacturers of power devices in the United States, Japan and Europe belong to IDM manufacturers, while most of the manufacturers in Taiwan belong to Fabless manufacturers. And different regions have formed their own competitive advantages through industrial division. The United States has an absolute advantage in the field of power IC, IC power in Europe and power discrete device also has strong strength, the Japanese competition in the discrete power devices advantage, but in the power of IC chips, although a large number of manufacturers, but the overall market share is not high.
We have briefly combed the status of the upstream and downstream industries of domestic power semiconductor.
The upstream raw material level is similar to that of the whole semiconductor industry. Wafer suppliers still occupy a larger voice in the upstream industry chain. Besides, under the impetus of international manufacturers, wide band gap materials such as SiC and GaN are gradually entering the market.
Manufacturer level, domestic power semiconductor manufacturers for basic IDM model, namely to packaging and testing of complete production chain from design, manufacturing, but most manufacturers only in low-voltage MOS devices, diode and thyristor relatively low-end device production technology is relatively mature, for IGBT and other high-end devices, only a handful of domestic manufacturers with the production and packaging products, domestic sales of high-end power devices are still dominated by the United States, Japan and Europe manufacturers. Faced with good market prospects and huge import substitution market, it is the inevitable choice for domestic manufacturers to achieve product upgrading and import substitution through international industrial mergers and acquisitions and independent technological breakthroughs.
The downstream application level, IC power for power management chip, and used in consumer electronics, home appliances, power supply equipment; power module for new energy vehicles, smart grid, rail transportation and other traditional industries and emerging DC/AC inverter, rectifier, drive control circuit. Benefiting from the strong development of new energy vehicles and other industries in China, the demand for power semiconductor devices / modules in China has been accelerating. In recent years, domestic substitution is imminent and is expected to become a characteristic growth point in China's semiconductor industry.
In addition, the momentum of new energy is booming, and the whole industry chain drives the demand of high-end device market such as IGBT.
Power semiconductor devices are widely used in new energy vehicles and charging piles. The fuel pumps and pistons used in internal combustion engines are being replaced by lithium ion batteries, inverters and IGBT.
According to TOYOTA auto statistics, the amount of power semiconductor devices accounts for 25% of all semiconductor devices in electric vehicles. The power modules such as Mosfet and IGBT are also the core electrical energy converter of the charging and charging stations.
IGBT: power semiconductor crown, import substitution is at the time
Foreign research and development of IGBT devices mainly ABB, Infineon, MITSUBISHI, Toshiba, Fuji, Semikron, developed the IGBT device product specification covers voltage 600V-6500V, current 2A-3600A, has formed the perfect product series.
At present, the IDM model and the IGBT complete industrial chain have been formed in China.
In policy, the state will drive the rise of semiconductor industry. As a key power semiconductor device in high-speed rail and military industry, the state will provide policy and financial support. In May 2015, the State Council officially released the strategy of "making China 2025", and put forward the ten key areas of advanced rail transit equipment, energy saving and new energy vehicles, power equipment, high-grade CNC machine tools and robots.
In terms of capital, power semiconductors use special technology, do not pursue advanced process, and invest only in 1/10 of integrated circuits. Domestic manufacturers can take advantage of capital advantage to acquire advanced technology and catch up with overseas giants quickly.
Technically, the domestic enterprises started from low power devices, the accumulation of years began to enter the high-end devices to CSR, BYD as the representative of the manufacturers have to achieve technological breakthroughs and achieve successful domestic application of IGBT in the high iron and new energy vehicles in the future, there will be more domestic power device manufacturers cut into the blue ocean market.
(1) new energy vehicle / rail exchange market demand accelerated IGBT domestic substitution
China's power semiconductor market accounts for more than 50% of the world market. But in the new energy vehicle, rail transit and other high-end MOSFET and IGBT mainstream device market, 90% is mainly dependent on imports, and is basically monopolized by foreign European, American and Japanese enterprises. IGBT is the core technology of new energy vehicles and charging piles. According to IHS prediction, by 2020, the scale of global IGBT market can reach 8 billion US dollars, the annual compound growth rate is about 10%, the domestic market scale will exceed 20 billion yuan, the annual compound growth rate is about 15%, and has broad domestic alternative space.
The access and management of new renewable energy needs a large number of power semiconductor devices to control. Taking solar photovoltaic power as an example, because the solar cell and battery are DC power, and the load is an AC load, the inverter is essential. According to the operation mode, the inverter can be divided into independent operating inverter and grid connected inverter. Independent operating inverter for independent operation of solar cell power generation system, power supply for independent load. Solar cell power generation with grid connected inverter for grid operation
In the process of solar energy conversion, there are various advanced power devices that can be used, such as MOSFET, BJT and IGBT. IGBT can provide more advantages than other power devices, including stronger current handling capability, voltage, rather than current, and easy implementation of grid control, as well as the integration of ultra fast recovery diodes in the package to achieve faster turn off time. MOSFET is also a voltage control, and the switching speed is faster, so the switching loss is lower than that of IGBT.
(2) import substitution for military / rail boost power devices, independent control is imminent
Military electronic equipment is sensitive and special, and is of great importance to national defense. At present, our army is developing towards informatization, intellectualization and electronization. Power semiconductor devices are widely used in defense and military industries, and have become indispensable devices for modern military weapons.
On the one hand, in 2015, the state promulgated the new national security law, which calls for accelerating the development of the core and key technologies of independent and controllable strategic high-tech and important areas, and ensuring the safety of major technologies and projects. As the core part of power electronics technology, power semiconductor device is both strategic and core technology, and is closely related to national security.
On the other hand, with the increasing proportion of high-end weaponry in our military equipment and the continuous increase of R & D expenses of high and new concept weapons, power semiconductor related policy subsidies and procurement will also increase.
Rail transportation system with high-speed rail is constantly upgrading, AC drive technology is one of the core technologies of modern rail transportation, in AC drive system of traction converter is a key component, the IGBT device has become the mainstream of power electronic devices auxiliary converter traction converter and various rail transit vehicles.
SiC/GaN new power devices have great potential
The performance of power devices changes not only in energy conversion efficiency, but also in the system energy handling capability -- to improve the power density, the index of every 4 years on average up to 1 times, was known as the "Moore's law field of power electronics".
At present, the mainstream power semiconductor devices in the market are Si based devices, including some SOI (Silicon on Insulator) based high voltage integrated circuits. However, with the continuous improvement of semiconductor process technology, the performance of Si based devices has tendencies to the theoretical limit of their materials, which makes the growth of power density appear a saturation trend, and its speed of development is no longer able to meet the high performance requirements of the market.
With the rapid development of wide band gap semiconductor materials, such as SiC (silicon carbide) and GaN (Dan Huajia), SiC and silicon based GaN power electronic devices have gradually become an important development area of power semiconductor devices.
Considering the hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, power supply device and solar power converter market demand continues to rise, Yole estimates the global SiC and GaN power semiconductor market will be $210 million in 2015, the first to rise above $1 billion in 2020, then in 2025 soared to $3 billion 700 million.
(1) different development of different SiC devices, large gap between domestic and foreign industrial scale
Internationally, the United States CREE (Cree) Company in 2003 launched the first SiC product, but did not cause the market attention, until after 2010, the industry began to focus on SiC power devices, some manufacturers such as Cree, Rohm, Infineon, ST, Microsemi launched related products.
In China, the research of SiC power devices started in the late twentieth Century. Until 2014, the domestic SiC diode realized mass production, but it didn't form a complete industrial chain, which has a large gap compared with the foreign industrial scale. At present, the domestic implementation of silicon carbide (SiC) power device production company only several Tianrun Tyco semiconductor, the production of Schottky diode 600 ~ 1700V series of the indicators have reached the international advanced level.
(2) GaN - the multidomain application potential of microwave radio frequency / power devices is unlimited
The critical breakdown electric field GaN material with band width, 3 times of Si material 10 times and 2.5 times of the Si in Si saturated drift velocity, especially the Al GaN/GaN structure based on GaN has a higher electron mobility, the GaN device has low resistance, high working frequency, can meet the needs of electronic equipment generation of power devices for more power and higher frequency, smaller volume and more severe high temperature work requirements.
GaN material is used as the main raw materials such as the original blue LED products, but because of the characteristics of Gan with high hardness and high energy gap, and power Gan element may be in the silicon substrate (silicon wafer) on growth in the area and the overall cost consideration, also has the possibility of more cost-effective than silicon carbide components, therefore is used in high power semiconductor devices.
With the extensive application of GaN materials in the field of optoelectronic devices, accelerated the development of GaN materials, especially large diameter silicon substrate GaN epitaxial growth technology progress and gradually commercialized, so GaN has cost cheaper, effectively promoted the development of GaN power semiconductor devices. It is expected that by 2020, the price of Si based GaN components will be sold at the same price as Si based MOSFET and Si based IGBT.
(3) international manufacturers are starting to force the GaN power device Market
The excellent performance of GaN devices based on many international companies such as Infineon, ST, NXP (has been buying) etc. to chase the market in this area in recent years, although from the current point of view, GaN Si SiC, relative to the cost of the device is still high, but due to the GaN material in other areas of application, the cost reduction has become an inevitable trend GaN, the long-term prospects for future products.
At present, the power switching devices based on GaN mainly include Al GaN/GaN HEMT (HFET), GaN based MOSFET and MIS-HEMT. Among them, Al GaN/GaN HEMT has the advantages of simple technology, mature technology, excellent forward conduction characteristics and high working frequency, and has become the most concerned structure in GaN power switch devices.
At present, based on the 6 inch silicon based GaN platform, IR and EPC have launched 30V and 100V/200V GaN field effect power electronic devices respectively, and 600V-900VGaN devices will also be introduced to the market in the near future. The research and development agency, represented by the European Center for microelectronics research, is developing a 8 inch silicon based GaN power electronic device.